Tesi di laurea di Emanuela Dolcini - 1938: L'opinione pubblica britannica e l'antisemitismo fascista





U.S. Immigration Expert For Germany

After a depressing start, the Evian Conference concluded last Friday in a mood of qualified optimism, which was heightened by the reference to Kenya by Lord Winterton, the British delegate, as a possible home for Jewish refugees, and the departure for Germany of Mr. George Brant, the United States immigration expert. Mr. Brant is to conduct a confidential tour of inspection, it is stated, and his mission is said to have the full approval of President Roosevelt.

Mr. Myron C. Taylor, the United States delegate, summed up the feeling of other delegates when he declared, in his concluding speech, that machinery had been put in motion which "will bring a real improvement in the life and prospects of many millions." The Evian meeting, he said was only a beginning, and a prospect had been opened for increased admittance of refugees.

Thy permanent machinery to be set up, Mr. Taylor added, would take into account the claims and testimonies of private organisations. Orderly, emigration plus taking out of capital by emigrants, he said, was imperative for world peace. "Disorderly exodus might result in international unrest. - Our work will continue tirelessly in order that the hope of men, women, and children who place their faith in our effort may not be dispelled in their sufferings and bitterness."

M. Henry Berenger, head of the French delegation, emphasised that for the first time the United States were joining a permanent international body dealing with non-American affairs.

" No Opening of Doors of Palestine "

Lord Winterton utilised his concluding speech for repairing his omission to refer to Palestine. But what he had to say was not encouraging. He claimed that Palestine stood on a footing of its own and could not usefully be taken into account at the present stage in connection with the refugee problems.

" It has been represented in some quarters that the whole question at least of Jewish refugees could be solved if only the gates of

Palestine were thrown open to the Jewish immigrants without restriction of any kind," Lord Winterton said: " I should like to say as emphatically as I can that I regard any such proposition as wholly untenable. Firstly, Palestine is hot a large country, and, apart from that, there are special considerations arising out of the terms of the Mandate and out of the local situation which it is impossble to ignore.

"His Majesty's Government has, as the Mandatory Power, a direct obligation out of the terms of the Mandate to facilitate Jewish immigration into Palestine under suitable conditions. This responsibility it has discharged and will continue to discharge in the light of the conditions actually prevailing from time to time," he added. "I need not enlarge on the conditions prevailing at the present time. The acute problem that has arisen and the special difficulties with which the Mandatory Government is confronted are matters of general knowledge. They have led to the proposal of drastic changes in the political structure of the country, the practical aspects of which are still under active investigation. Pending the completion of these investigations, it has been found necessary, not indeed to discontinue the Jewish immigration—that has never been contemplated—but to subject it to certain restrictions of a purely temporary and exceptional character, the object of which is to maintain within reasonable limits the existing balance of population pending a final decision on the political future of the country."

The arrangements now in force; declared Lord Winterton, were purely temporary in character and were designed to cope with what might be described as a period of transition. They would be subject to revision when the investigations were completed and the Mandatory Power was in a position to review the whole question in the ligh of the results.

East Africa and the Jews

Lord Winterton then went on to sweeten his.Palestine pill by outlining possibilities for Jewish settlement in Kenya.

"The possibility offered by Kenya for the small-scale settlement of Jewish refugees has been under consideration for some time past," he said. " After preliminary discussions with the local authorities the private organisation concerned sent out an expert adviser to investigate the question on the spot. It is understood that his report is favourable and that a scheme has been

evolved and is now under active consideration

for the acquisition of private land in the colony.

"What precise form this plan may ultimately take I am not now in a position to say," he added, " but in any case it is quite clear that the project of settlement must be a general one. There can be no question of mass immigration or of disturbing land allotted for native occupation. As regards possibilities elsewhere in East Africa, I have not yet the material to enable me to add to what I said last week, but I should like to repeat that inquiries are being actively pursued and that there is every desire both on the part of his Majesty's Government and of the colonial authorities to render any assistance .that may be found practicable."

The report of the Technical Sub-Committee as finally adopted stated that certain countries had indicated their desire to consider plans for settlement of. refugees in their territories when such plans were presented by official or private organisations.

The conference, at its concluding session, asked Mr. Taylor to remain Chairman until the London session next month. The work of the conference will, according to the Jewish Telegraphic Agency, continue under Mr. Taylor's Chairmanship in Paris until Sunday, and will then be transferred to London.

Mr. Brant's Mission

As soon as the London Conference, due to open on August 3rd, is over, Mr. Taylor has informed the J.T.A., the appointed American Director would go to Germany to start negotiations which would deal not only with the question of property, but also the question of securing normal treatment for the Jew while still in Germany.

The Director would also consider the possibilities of immigration and colonisation in certain colonial territorities as well as overseas countries. " We mean business," Mr, Taylor added.

It is learnt that Mr. George Brant, the U.S. immigration expert, left Evian last week for Germany on a confidential tour of inspection which will embrace Vienna, Stuttgart, Leipzig, Breslau, Hamburg, and possibly Berlin. His mission will be to collect on the spot the most accurate available information on the refugee problem, for submission to the London Conference. His repor will form the basis of future approaches to the German Government by the Director. Evian circles regard Mr. Brant’s tour as very important, since it shows the keen interest taken in the refugee problem by the U.S. Government.


Future Work For the Refugees

The terms of the resolution, as finally decided on by the Evian Conference, read as follows:

The Inter-Governmental Committee, having met at Evian, France, from July 6th to July 15th, 1938,

(1) Considering that the question of involuntary emigration has assumed major proportions and that the fate of the unfortunate people affected has become a problem for inter-Governmental deliberation.

(2) Aware that the involuntary emigration of large numbers of people, of different creeds, economic conditions, professions and trades, from the country or countries where they have been established is disturbing to the general economy, since these persons are obliged to seek refuge, either, temporarily or permanently, in other countries at a time when there is serious unemployment; that in consequence countries of refuge and settlement are faced with problems not only of an economic and social nature but also of public order, and that there is a severe strain on the administrative facilities and absorptive capacities of the receiving countries;

(3) Aware, moreover, that the involuntary emigration of people in large numbers has become so great that it renders racial and religious problems more acute; increases international unrest; and may hinder seriously the processes of appeasement in international relations.

(4) Believing that it is essential that a long-range programme should be envisaged, whereby assistance to involuntary emigrants, actual and potential, may be co-ordinated within the framework of existing migration faws and practices of governments;

(5) Considering that if countries of refuge or settlement are to co-operate in finding an orderly solution of the problem before the Committee they should have the collaboration of the country of origin and are therefore persuaded that it will make its contribution by enabling involuntary emigrants to take with them their property and possessions and emigrate in an orderly manner.

(6) Welcoming heartily the initiative taken by

the President of the United States of America in caning the inter-GovcrnmentaI meeting at Evian for the primary purpose of facilitating involuntary emigration from Germany (including . Austria), and expressing profound appreciation to the French Government for its courtesy in receiving the inter-Governmental meeting at Evian;

(7) Bearing in mind the resolution adopted by the Council of the League of Nations on May 14th, 1938, concerning international assistance to refugees;


(8) (a) that the persons coming within the scope of the activity of the inter-Governmental Committee shall be (1) persons who hive not already left their country of origin (Germany including Austria), but who must emigrate on account of their political opinions, religious beliefs, or racial origin and (2) persons as defined in (1) who have already left their country of origin and who have not yet established themselves permanently elsewhere;

(b) that the Governments participating in the Inter-GovernmentaI Committee shall continue to furnish the Committee, for its strictly confidential information, with (1) details regarding such immigrants as each Government may be prepared to receive under its existing laws and practices and (2) details of these laws and practices;

(c) that in view of the fact that the countries of refuge and settlement are entitled to take into account'the economic and social adaptability of immigrants, these should in many cases be required to accept, at least for a time, changed conditions of. living in the countries of settlement;

(d) that the Governments of the countries of refuge and settlement should not assume any obligations for the financing of involuntary emigration;

(c) that, with regard to the documents required by the countries of refuge and settlement, the Governments represented on the inter-Governmental Committee should consider the adoption of the following provision:

In those individual immigration cases in which the usually required documents emanating from foreign official sources are found not to be available, there should be accepted such other documents serving the purpose of the requirements of law, as may be available to the immigrant. and that, as regards the document which may be used to an involuntary emigrant by the country of his foreign residence to serve the purpose of a passport, note be taken of the several international agreements providing for the issue of a travel document serving the purpose of a passport, and of the advantage of their wide application.

(f) that there should meet at London an Inter-Governmental Committee consisting of such representatives as the Governments participating in the Evian meeting may desire to designate.

The London Committee

This Committee shall continue and develop the work of the Inter-GovernmentaI meeting at Evian and shall be constituted and shall function in the following manner:

There shall be a Chairman of this Committee and four Vice-Chairmen.

There shall be a Director of Authority, appointed by the Inter-Governmental Committee, who shall be guided by it in his actions. He shall undertake negotiations to improve the .present conditions of exodus and to replace them by conditions of orderly emigration. He shall approach the Governments of the countries of refuge and settlement with a view to developing opportunities for permanent settlement.

The Inter-Governmental Committee, recognising the value of the work of the existing refugee services of the League of Nations and of the studies of migration made by the International Labour Office, shall co-operate fully with these services, and the Inter-Governmental Committee at London shall consider the meant by which the co-operation of the Committee and the Director with these services shall be established.

The Inter-Governmental Committee at its forthcoming meeting at London will consider the scale on which its expenses shall be apportioned among the participating Governments.

(9) That the Inter-Governmental Committee in its continued form shall hold a first meeting at London on August 3rd, 1938.

Vai all'indice di questa tesi
Vai all'indice di tutte le tesi

© Morashà 2001 - Emanuela Dolcini 2001.

Attenzione: tutti i materiali pubblicati sono strettamente coperti dalla legge sul diritto d'autore e ne è severamente proibita la copia e la riproduzione, totale o parziale senza permesso scritto dell'autore.